M.J. Feuerstein, K.L. Blackard, T.S. Rappaport, S.Y. Seidel and H.H. Xia, "Path loss, delay spread, and outage models as functions of antenna height for microcellular system design," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 43 (3), pp. 487–498, August 1994. [DOI, BibTeX, Details...]


loss, This paper presents results of wide-band path and delay spread measurements for five representative microcellular environments in the San Francisco Bay area at 1900 MHz. Measurements were made with a wide-band channel sounder using a 100-ns probing pulse. Base station antenna heights of 3.7 m, 8.5 m, and 13.3 m were tested with a mobile receiver antenna height of 1.7 m to emulate a typical microcellular scenario. The results presented in this paper provide insight into the statistical distributions of measured path loss by showing the validity of a double regression model with a break point at a distance that has first Fresnel zone clearance for line-of-sight topographies. The variation of delay spread as a function of path loss is also investigated, and loss, a simple exponential overbound model is developed. The path and delay spread models are then applied to communication system design allowing outage probabilities, based on path loss or delay spread, to be estimated for a given microcell size

Quick access


  • M.J. Feuerstein
  • K.L. Blackard
  • T.S. Rappaport
  • S.Y. Seidel
  • H.H. Xia

BibTeX reference

  author = {Feuerstein, M.J. and Blackard, K.L. and Rappaport, T.S. and Seidel, S.Y. and Xia, H.H.},
  title = {{Path loss, delay spread, and outage models as functions of antenna height for microcellular system design}},
  doi = {10.1109/25.312809},
  issn = {0018-9545},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology},
  month = {August},
  number = {3},
  pages = {487--498},
  publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers},
  volume = {43},
  year = {1994},

Copyright notice

Links to final or draft versions of papers are presented here to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted or distributed for commercial purposes without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.

The following applies to all papers listed above that have IEEE copyrights: Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.

The following applies to all papers listed above that are in submission to IEEE conference/workshop proceedings or journals: This work has been submitted to the IEEE for possible publication. Copyright may be transferred without notice, after which this version may no longer be accessible.

The following applies to all papers listed above that have ACM copyrights: ACM COPYRIGHT NOTICE. Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for components of this work owned by others than ACM must be honored. Abstracting with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Request permissions from Publications Dept., ACM, Inc., fax +1 (212) 869-0481, or permissions@acm.org.

The following applies to all SpringerLink papers listed above that have Springer Science+Business Media copyrights: The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com.